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過(guò)硫酸鹽可以分解一種新的物質(zhì)!

更新時(shí)間:2022-03-01 點(diǎn)擊數:2628

過(guò)硫酸鹽具有穩定性好、水溶性好、氧化性強、反應產(chǎn)物友好等優(yōu)點(diǎn),可彌補其它氧化劑的不足。過(guò)硫酸鹽的過(guò)分解可以生成一種新的活性物質(zhì)——硫酸鹽自由基。SO4中有一對孤對電子,其氧化能力超過(guò)過(guò)硫酸鹽本身,接近羥基自由基SO4 (4s, 40℃)的半衰期,可以使其更充分地與污染物接觸。過(guò)硫酸鹽活化也能產(chǎn)生OH,使其氧化更多的難降解物質(zhì),如多氯聯(lián)苯。過(guò)硫酸鈉通常以銨鹽、鉀鹽和鈉鹽的形式存在,而過(guò)硫酸鈉常用于原位化學(xué)氧化技術(shù)中。

  Persulfate has the advantages of good stability, good water solubility, strong oxidation and friendly reaction products, which can make up for the shortcomings of other oxidants. The excessive decomposition of persulfate can produce a new active substance, sulfate free radical. There is a pair of lone pair electrons in SO4, whose oxidation ability is higher than that of persulfate itself, which is close to the half-life of hydroxyl radical SO4 (4s, 40 C), so that it can be more fully exposed to pollutants. Persulfate activation also produces OH, which oxidizes more refractory substances, such as polychlorinated biphenyls. Sodium persulfate usually exists in the form of ammonium salt, potassium salt and sodium salt, while sodium persulfate is often used in in-situ chemical oxidation technology.

  過(guò)硫酸鈉(Na2S2O8也稱(chēng)為過(guò)硫酸鈉。白色結晶或結晶性粉末。無(wú)味。無(wú)味的。分子量238.13。常溫下逐漸分解,加熱或在乙醇中可迅速分解,分解氧氣而形成焦硫酸鈉。水分與鉑黑、銀、鉛、鐵、銅、鎂、鎳、錳等金屬離子或其合金能促進(jìn)分解,高溫(約200℃)快速分解,釋放過(guò)氧化氫。溶于水(20℃70.4)。長(cháng)時(shí)間與皮膚接觸,可引起過(guò)敏,操作時(shí)應注意。大鼠經(jīng)口LD50895mg/kg。

  Sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8 is also called sodium persulfate). White crystalline or crystalline powder. Tasteless. Tasteless. Molecular weight 238.13. It decomposes gradually at room temperature, decomposes rapidly in heating or ethanol, and decomposes oxygen to form sodium pyrosulfate. Water and platinum black, silver, lead, iron, copper, magnesium, nickel, manganese and other metal ions or their alloys can promote decomposition, rapid decomposition at high temperature (about 200 C), release hydrogen peroxide. It is soluble in water (20 70.4). Long time contact with skin can cause allergy. Attention should be paid to the operation. LD50895 mg/kg via oral cavity in rats.

  化學(xué)性質(zhì)

  Chemical property

  過(guò)硫酸鈉是一種穩定的強氧化劑。過(guò)硫酸鹽活化產(chǎn)生自由基對去除石油污染物具有重要意義。過(guò)硫酸在堿、金屬離子、金屬礦物、熱、有機化合物等條件下均能產(chǎn)生自由基,其活化機理也不盡相同。

  Sodium persulfate is a stable strong oxidant. The production of free radicals by persulfate activation is of great significance to the removal of petroleum pollutants. Persulfuric acid can produce free radicals under the conditions of alkali, metal ions, metal minerals, heat and organic compounds, and its activation mechanism is also different.

  過(guò)硫酸鹽激進(jìn)的化學(xué)

  Radical chemistry of persulfate

  它有一對孤立的電子,具有很強的電子生成能力和較高的氧化能力。理論上,大多數有機污染物可以氧化成小分子有機酸,終礦化成CO2和H2O。許多學(xué)者研究了SO與有機化合物反應的產(chǎn)物及其機理。目前,圍繞特定污染物的研究,逐漸形成了電子轉移、氫提取和加成三個(gè)基本觀(guān)點(diǎn)。

  It has a pair of isolated electrons, and has a strong ability of electron generation and oxidation. In theory, most organic pollutants can be oxidized to small molecular organic acids, and eventually mineralized to CO2 and H2. Many scholars have studied the products and mechanism of the reaction of SO with organic compounds. At present, three basic viewpoints, namely, electron transfer, hydrogen extraction and addition, have been gradually formed around the study of specific pollutants.

  1)電子轉移

  1) Electron transfer

  與芳香族化合物的反應主要是通過(guò)電子轉移進(jìn)行的。親電子基團也是如此,它在氧化過(guò)程中從有機分子中竊取電子。研究表明,有機分子中含有氨基(-nh2)、羥基(-oh)或烷氧基(-or)等供電子基團時(shí),氧化反應速率加快;相反,有機分子中存在電子捕獲基團硝基(-no2)和羰基(C=O),這將減慢氧化反應的速率。

  Reactions with aromatic compounds are mainly carried out by electron transfer. The same is true for electrophilic groups, which steal electrons from organic molecules during oxidation. The results show that the rate of oxidation is accelerated when the organic molecule contains amino (-nh2), hydroxyl (-oh) or alkoxy (-or) donor groups. On the contrary, there are electron capture groups nitro (-no2) and carbonyl (C=O) in the organic molecule, which will slow down the rate of oxidation.


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